In the early 1970s, in need of a critical response to the commercialization of film production and programming, Barbara Meter Netherlands, b. 1939) co-founded the Electric Cinema. Run by members of the Amsterdamse Film Coop, and STOFF (the Studio for the Development of Film and Film Manifestations), the theater became the epicenter of Dutch independent and avant-garde filmmaking. At the Electric Cinema, Meter curated international avant-garde and expanded cinema programs. After that, she cocreated POLKIN (Political Kinema) and made documentaries as part of activist and feminist movements.